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More directly, manipulating the airflow using fog dispensers has shown to affect the flight capabilities of mosquitoes and could function as an intervention tool in itself [ ]. To date, automated tracking techniques have contributed to our understanding of how the multimodal integration of host- cues plays a role in source finding of mosquitoes [ 72 , 80 ]. The tools have provided information on attraction or repellent modes by studying mosquito behaviour around treated surfaces such as bed nets [ 21 , 22 , , ] or around odour-baited traps [ 24 ].

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Recently, the obtained knowledge led to promising implementations in the field where adding a heat source to an odour-baited trap resulted in a 6. We thank Marcel Dicke for his comments on previous versions of the manuscript. Two anonymous reviewers are acknowledged for their suggestions to improve the manuscript. JS and WT discussed the contents of the review. JS wrote the first draft. WT revised the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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The authors collaborated in the development of Track3D, however this did not affect the content of the current manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Jeroen Spitzen, Email: ln. Willem Takken, Email: ln. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Journal List Parasit Vectors v. Parasit Vectors.

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Published online Mar 2. Jeroen Spitzen and Willem Takken. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Oct 3; Accepted Feb Abstract The health impact of mosquito-borne diseases causes a huge burden on human societies. Background Mosquito-borne diseases continue to impose a heavy burden on human societies and impede welfare and economic development [ 1 ]. Behaviour across the mosquito life history The mosquito life history traits can be divided into plant feeding, mating, host feeding, oviposition, larval development and pupation.

Plant feeding Among the first activities of a mosquito after emergence from the pupa is the search for a sugar source. Mating Mosquitoes, along with other Diptera, have the special ability to mate in flight [ 49 ]. Host-seeking Behavioural research on mosquitoes is dominated by studies on host-seeking. Oviposition Responses to oviposition cues depend on the physiological state of the mosquito [ 73 , 93 , 94 ]. Larval behaviour Mosquito larvae are bounded by the breeding site in which they hatched.

Insect flight tracking: the state of the art Image tracking Mosquito flight recordings were initially processed manually, by describing or quantifying the recorded behaviours [ 59 , 78 , ].

Lighting and contrast Successful tracking relies on a clear contrast between the object of interest and the background. Multiple object tracking From the start of the development of automated tracking techniques, scientists searched for solutions to track multiple objects. Mosquito behaviour at a glance Using tracking technology as discussed above, several studies have described the behaviour of mosquitoes during different life stages.

Data evaluation and considerations before taking off The tracking data that are generated need careful evaluation before any meaningful interpretations of the observed behaviours can be made. Future perspectives Integration of spatial observations with fundamental studies on flight dynamics Recent studies on the flight kinematics and aerodynamics of mosquitoes, together with the spatial data reviewed above, throw new light on the way mosquitoes move through their environment [ 29 , , ]. How to exploit mosquito behaviour for surveillance and intervention With the rapid development and increased availability of tracking hardware and open-source software, scientists should consider what system s are required to answer their research question s.

Conclusions The implementation of vector intervention tools, as part of the Global Vector Control Response strategy launched by the WHO [ 20 ], comes along with questions on the effectiveness and possible behavioural adaptations of mosquitoes to such tools. Funding Not applicable. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Notes Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors collaborated in the development of Track3D, however this did not affect the content of the current manuscript.

Contributor Information Jeroen Spitzen, Email: ln. References 1. Global malaria mortality between and a systematic analysis. Action and investment to defeat malaria — For a malaria-free world.

Rearing Heat

Geneva: WHO; Benelli G, Mehlhorn H. Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control. Parasitol Res. Zika virus: The latest newcomer. Front Microbiol. Impact of climate change on global malaria distribution. Rezza G.

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